The Piano Sonata

The Piano Sonata No. 30 Op. 109 in E main from 1820 is the third to final of Ludwig van Beethoven’s piano sonatas. After the highly effective Hammerklavier Sonata op. 106, lengthy deaf, he returned with it to smaller dimensions and a extra intimate character. The sonata is devoted to Maximiliane Brentano, the daughter of Beethoven’s longtime pal Antonie Brentano. In 1812, Beethoven had already composed the little piano trio in B flat main, WoO 39, for her.
Musically, the three-movement work is characterised by a free use of the standard sonata kind. His focus is on the third motion, a fancy set of variations as in op. 111.

Origin story

The compositional beginnings of op. 109 may be traced again to the primary months of 1820. They preceded Beethoven’s negotiations with Adolf Schlesinger, the publisher of his final three sonatas. Current analysis means that Friedrich Starke requested Beethoven to jot down a contribution for his piano anthology Wiener Pianoforteschule. Beethoven interrupted work on the Missa solemnis. Finally, nevertheless, he provided Starke the Bagatelles op. 119, nos. 7–11.

Key

In the middle of music historical past, there was a lot hypothesis and philosophizing concerning the character of the person keys. It has usually been doubted whether or not the keys have any which means in any respect.
Nonetheless, particularly within the final three piano sonatas, which in a sure approach may be thought of a pianistic abstract of Beethoven’s world of concepts, the selection of keys is actually no coincidence, however well-considered.
This turns into clear when one remembers the position performed by keys in Beethoven’s solely opera, Fidelio. C minor and C main stand for evil and good, for tyranny and freedom, for darkness and lightweight, even for hell and heaven. As within the opera and even within the fifth symphony, Beethoven chooses these two keys in his final sonata, op. to defeat the evil on this planet and to create a world the place “all males develop into brothers”. The dedication of this sonata to Archduke Rudolph could even include a direct enchantment to a political authority to assist a liberation motion.
Within the opera, A flat main is the important thing of Florestan languishing within the dungeon, with whom Beethoven presumably identifies within the A flat main Sonata op. 110. That is virtually compellingly advised by the easy proven fact that this sonata is the one one that doesn’t bear a dedication, i.e. that it stays utterly in Beethoven’s possession and offers along with his very personal internal being.
Lastly, within the opera, E main is the important thing of Leonore, who escalates in heroic pathos of loving self-sacrifice within the E main a part of her nice aria. The concept of ​​salvation via the “eternally female” (Goethe) is actually additionally mirrored in Beethoven’s mysterious “immortal lover”. Towards this background, it might probably hardly be a coincidence that the Sonata op. 109, which is devoted to “Miss Maximiliana Brentano”, is in the important thing of E main.

United States


United States, United States of America, USA, till July 11, 1778, america of America, colloquially additionally America – a federal state in North America consisting of fifty states, bordering Canada to the north, Mexico to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Arctic Ocean to the northwest and the Atlantic Ocean to the east.
The third largest nation by way of inhabitants (after China and India), and fourth in terms of area (after Russia, Canada and China.). It additionally consists of non-state islands within the Pacific (Baker, Guam, Howland, Jarvis, Johnston, Kingman, Northern Mariana Islands, Halfway, Palmyra, American Samoa, Wake) and the Atlantic (Puerto Rico – the biggest of them, formally related to america – Virgin Islands, Navassa). The nation’s de facto territory can also be the Guantánamo army base (in Cuba).
Linguistically and culturally various, militant peoples of Native People, together with the comparatively much less break up Inuit, inhabited the areas of right now’s United States for about 10,000. years. Earlier than the arrival of Europeans and, consequently, their forcible importation of captured and enslaved Africans in West Africa to work on plantations, the indigenous inhabitants amounted to over 1 million inhabitants. Because of the conflict with the immigration of Europeans with higher weapons at their disposal, the indigenous inhabitants was subjected to persistent, culturally devastating hostilities. Consequently, it has been lowered to a negligible fraction of a brand new entire. African-Americans, initially slaves, had been freed on account of the bloody Civil Conflict within the 1860s and gained by the opponents of slavery. The method of integrating them, in addition to the Indians, continues to be ongoing.

Historical past

In the present day, america is a culturally, ethnically, religiously and morally various nation. Then again, they’re additionally deeply polarized locations, a state that’s politically, ethnically, economically and morally divided. It’s an rising nation with a inhabitants of over 323 million individuals, marked by a big improve in immigration (authorized and unlawful), particularly from neighboring Mexico. Among the surviving Indian communities nonetheless preserve their cultural and nationwide identification (Lakota, Hopi). Many Indians are serving or serving in america’ armed forces (for example, the Navahs of World Conflict II as Indian ciphers). In lots of remoted ethnic settings, immigrants and native residents largely determine with the ethnicity of their ancestors, however this isn’t the nationwide social norm.

Financial growth

The liberal guidelines governing the American economic system resulted in its speedy growth. Common suffrage for whites and quite a few political freedoms contributed to the elevated inflow of settlers from Europe. They established dynamically creating enterprises, sustaining the ethos of labor, persistence and financial savings. The USA’ share of world manufacturing elevated from 7% in 1840 to 23.3% in 1870. New gear, equivalent to mix harvesters, was broadly launched. Nonetheless, the division into two financial zones turned increasingly more seen – the commercial and urbanized North and the agricultural South, the place the work of slaves kidnapped in West Africa was massively utilized in plantations.

Nepalska povijest

Stara povijest

Nepal ima dugu povijest koja se proteže tisućljećima. Kirati su jedna od najranijih poznatih nepalskih skupina, koja datira otprilike iz 563. godine prije Krista. C. i car Aśoka vladali su ogromnim carstvom koje je uključivalo sjevernu Indiju i južnu regiju Terai današnjeg Nepala u s. ja a. Do 200. godine, budističko carstvo je zamijenjeno ponovnom hinduističkim feudima, kao što je dinastija Licchavi.

Oko 900. godine, dinastija Thakuri naslijedila je eru Licchavi, a na kraju ju je naslijedila dinastija Malla, koja je vladala do 18. stoljeća. Godine 1768. kralj Gorkha Prithvi Narayan Shah zauzeo je grad Kathmandu, čineći ga glavnim gradom svog novog kraljevstva. Godine 1814. Nepal je bio uključen u rat s Ujedinjenim Kraljevstvom (koji je zastupala British India Company). Orientales) u sukobu poznat kao Anglo-nepalski rat, koji je završio Ugovorom iz Sugaulija (1816.), u kojem je Nepal ustupio Sikkim i južni Terai, u zamjenu za britansko povlačenje. Nakon što su nepalske Gurke 1857. godine pomogle Britancima da uguše pobunu Sepoya, većina teritorija Teraija vraćena im je u znak zahvalnosti.

Demokracija i građanski rat

Nepalska kraljica Rani okružena svojim damama u čekanju, 1920-ih.
Šahova dinastija suspendirana je 1846., kada je Jung Bahadur Rana preuzeo kontrolu nad zemljom nakon što je ubio nekoliko stotina prinčeva i poglavica u masakru u Katmandu Kotu (oružarska palača). Rana (gotovo svi maharadži iz Lambjanga i Kaskija)9 vladali su kao nasljedni premijeri do 1948., kada je britanska kolonija ostvarila svoju neovisnost. Indija je 1951. predložila kralja Tribhuvana za novog vladara Nepala i sponzorirala Nepalsku kongresnu stranku. Tribhuvanov sin, kralj Mahendra, raspustio je demokratski eksperiment i proglasio “panchayat sustav” (diktatura bez političkih stranaka) prema kojem će vladati kraljevstvom. Njegov sin, kralj Birendra, naslijedio je prijestolje 1972. godine i nastavio je panchayat politiku sve dok Jana Andolan (Narodni pokret ili Demokratski pokret) iz 1989. nije prisilio monarhiju da prihvati ustavne reforme.

U svibnju 1991. u Nepalu su održani prvi izbori u gotovo 50 godina. Najviše glasova dobile su Nepalska kongresna stranka i Komunistička partija Nepala (Ujedinjena marksističko-lenjinistička). Međutim, niti jedna stranka nije uspjela održati vlast više od dvije godine zaredom. Kritičari tvrde da vladine reforme nisu značajno poboljšale politički poredak, budući da je novu vladu također karakterizirala ekstremna korupcija koja graniči s kleptokracijom. U veljači 1996. Komunistička partija Nepala pokrenula je oružanu pobunu kako bi zamijenila režim komunističkom državom naklonjenom maoizmu. Ovaj sukob trajao bi 10 godina, tijekom kojih bi umrlo više od 12.700 ljudi. Prema Uslužnom centru za neformalni sektor, vladine snage odgovorne su za 85% smrtnih slučajeva civila.

Prema izvještaju nekih vladinih dužnosnika u Nepalu, 1. lipnja 2001. godine, prijestolonasljednik Dipendra, vraćajući se u svoju palaču nakon noćnog izlaska, ubio je svoje roditelje, kralja Birendru i kraljicu Aishwaryu, kao i druge. obitelj, proizvod obiteljskog spora. Unatoč pokušaju samoubojstva, Dipendra je ostao živ, a iako je pao u komu, proglašen je kraljem u bolničkom krevetu, umro je tri dana kasnije. Nakon smrti kratkotrajnog kralja, njegov ujak Gyanendra stupio je na prijestolje 4. lipnja 2001. Verzija koju ljudi Nepala općenito prihvaćaju je sasvim drugačija: atentat na cijelu jezgru kraljevske obitelji bio bi planiran od strane onaj koji bi kasnije bio kralj i izveo ga sin ovoga.

Pobuna preuzima značajne dijelove Nepala. Maoisti protjeruju predstavnike stranaka bliskih vlasti, ekspropriraju lokalne kapitaliste i provode vlastite razvojne projekte. Oni također vode svoje zatvore i sudove. Osim mjera prisile, gerilci jačaju svoju prisutnost zbog svoje popularnosti među važnim sektorima nepalskog društva, posebice ženama, nedodirljivim osobama i etničkim manjinama. Time je eliminirana kastinska diskriminacija, žene dobivaju ista nasljedna prava kao i muškarci, a prisilni brakovi su zabranjeni. Osim toga, maoisti pružaju besplatnu zdravstvenu njegu i tečajeve opismenjavanja.

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